Someone likes me!

Since I started writing Garden in a City back in January, I’ve found that I like garden blogging much more than I expected. Among the things I like are all the ways that this virtual community finds to express appreciation as well as increase mutual awareness. For example, I like the various collegial awards that we present to each other.

One reason I like these awards is that I’ve just been nominated for two of them (the Sunshine Award, and the Beautiful Blogger Award) by one of the bloggers I enjoy following, Garden Sunshine, an avid Canadian gardener with a young family. Now, receiving this type of award does not mean that your blog has been judged outstanding by some panel of worthies. It just means that at least one other blogger thinks you’re doing a good job.

But that’s more than good enough for me! I’ve felt for a long time that most people just don’t get enough recognition in this life, and I think this sad fact applies particularly well to myself. So thanks, Garden Sunshine!

To claim these awards, you have to do some homework, namely, write something about yourself and nominate some other blogs to receive the same awards.

So here goes. The Sunshine Award asks the following:

  • Favorite Number: Anything but one, which is the loneliest number.
  • Favorite Non-Alcoholic Drink: Fresh pomegranate juice.
  • Favorite Animal: Downy Woodpeckers. They are tough (can keep the house sparrows in line) yet comical.
  • Facebook or Twitter: A little of each, not much of either.
  • My Passion: Native wildflowers.
  • Favorite Day of the Week: Any day I can avoid going to the office.
  • Favorite Flower: Anise Hyssop. No, Swamp Milkweed. No, Butterflyweed …

Now for the Beautiful Blogger Award, which wants seven interesting facts about myself.

1. If you took all the papers piled on my desk at work and laid them end to end, they would circle the earth three times.

2. I have a private nickname for every gas station on I-55 between Chicago and Springfield, Illinois.

3. When Judy wasn’t around, I used to give the kids canned ravioli for breakfast.

4. I have an inexplicable desire to visit all the breakaway regions of the former Soviet Republics. (Nagorno-Karabak, anyone?)

5. I was once stupid enough to drive from Bismark, ND, to Pierre, SD, in January. During a snowstorm.

6. Favorite movie: Action on the North Atlantic with Humphrey Bogart.

7. Favorite novel: Shalimar the Clown by Salman Rushdie.

Now, as to my nominees.

For the Sunshine Award:

For the Beautiful Blogger Award:

I sincerely encourage you to take a look at these blogs, which feature very fine writing, outstanding photography, or both – and all reflect a deep knowledge of and an entertaining and stimulating take on gardening and related topics.

Challah with Figs

I love figs, in fact one of the holiday season gifts I get every year is a string of dried figs. I also love challah. For those of you who don’t know, challah is an egg bread that is often slightly sweet.

So it was very nice of Judy to use a recipe she found on line to bake a challah that has a filling of dried figs and orange zest swirled throughout. Delicious! I confess I may have eaten more than my share.

Fresh from the oven

If you’d like to try making this yourself, the fig challah recipe is here.

An Astonishing Variety of (Mostly) Wild Asters

Now that I have the taxonomy issue out of my system (see last post), I can write about the asters in my garden. (As hillwards points out, “They may not be Asters any more, but they will always be asters …”). All the asters I grow except for one are Midwest USA natives and straight species. They represent a small slice of the hundreds of species and cultivars available.

I love asters because they flower freely, provide lots of fall color, and are extremely tough and easy to grow. They vary widely in the kind of environments to which they are adapted.

New England Aster with Purple Flowers

New England Aster (Sympohtrichum novae-angliae). This is a tall aster that likes moist soils and sun. Mine grow to 6′ and require staking even after I cut them back in late May. Next year I plan to cut them back at least twice and see where that gets me. The wild species is variable in color, and mine bloom in both a rich purple and pink. In my garden this plant gradually expands to form large clumps. New England Aster is a good flower for monarchs and other fall butterflies, and goldfinches eat the seeds.

New England Aster with Pink Flowers

A common dwarf variety of New England Aster is ‘Purple Dome‘, which I have growing in my back yard. In my garden it stays under 2’ tall. For me it blooms later than the species.

‘Purple Dome’ just starting to open

Short’s Aster (Symphotrichum shortii). This aster is less common in gardens, but I find it to have many virtues. Short’s Aster blooms profusely, covering itself with sky blue flowers in fall. It grows well in part shade or sun, and is generally adaptable. It can grow quite large and bushy (up to 4′), and I usually cut it back once in late May. It will self sow – if you hate pulling out seedlings you might want to cut it back before the seeds ripen.

Short’s Aster
Short’s Aster with Bluestem Goldenrod

Aromatic Aster (Symphotrichum oblongifolium). Aromatic aster is well adapted to drier, sunny spots. It also stays more compact  than many wild asters and self-sows infrequently. The light blue flowers have golden centers. One of my favorites.

Aromatic Aster with Anise-Scented Goldenrod
Aromatic Aster

White Woodland Aster (Eurybia divariticus). I’ve read that this aster spreads aggressively, but that has not been my experience. In fact, I planted it years ago in a moist, shady spot and it gradually disappeared. I’ve got it growing now in dry shade, and we’ll see how it does. A low-growing aster with white flowers.

White Woodland Aster

Calico Aster (Symphotrichum lateriflorum). Do not plant this aster in fertile soil and full sun. It will become a monster, more a shrub than a perennial, and self-sow aggressively. However, I have found it to be well-behaved in shade. Many tiny white flowers with maroon and yellow centers grow along horizontal stems. I like the way it looks, but I gave one to a friend of mine and she thought it was quite weedy. Especially loved by bees and other pollinators.

Calico Aster

Crooked-Stem Aster (Symphotrichum prenanthoides). Crooked-Stem Aster likes moist soil and does well in shade. It creates an airy cloud of white to light-blue flowers.

Crooked-Stem Aster

Big Leaf Aster (Symphotrichum macrophyllum). This is another aster with a reputation for thuggish behavior. I have it in dry shade where there is plenty of competition from shrubs, and there it has spread slowly to form a nice groundcover with its large, heart-shaped leaves. Big Leaf Aster blooms earlier than most of the other asters in my garden.

Big Leaf Aster

These asters can be ordered on line from native plant nurseries. Also, most of the above species have cultivars which can be found in garden centers. If you feel your garden needs more fall color, it’s worth taking a look at these plants.

The Aster Disaster

I like Asters. Along with Goldenrods, they make my favorite fall garden combination. When it comes to Asters, however, I have been botanically incorrect for years. Thanks to the taxonomists, Asters aren’t really Asters anymore (with a few exceptions).

No, now  they are Doellingerias, Eurybias, and (for most North American Asters) Symphyotrichums. A couple have even become Solidagos!

Was this really necessary? Aster is a very appropriate name for Asters: a simple name for a simple flower. If the taxonomists had to come up with new names, couldn’t they at least have come up with new names that were equally easy to remember and pronounce? You would think that this would be the sort of thing that would be regulated by the USDA.

Aster – no, sorry, Symphyotrichum shortii (Short’s Aster)

But no. I can only say that taxonomists are the natural enemies of gardeners. Or at least a natural irritant.

Like many people, including most of the plant retailers I’m aware of, I have followed a strategy of simply ignoring the new names. Unfortunately, if you ignore the taxonomists, they do not go away. And they have all kinds of justifications for why the renaming and reshuffling was necessary. Hardly anyone understands those justifications, but we are supposed to accept them because they are Scientific. I sometimes suspect that the taxonomists are running a racket, constantly coming up with reasons for changing the names of familiar and well-loved plants and in the process justifying the continued employment of taxonomists.

Despite my misgivings, I’ve decided it’s time to hoist the white flag of surrender. From now on, I will use the correct botanical names. But I won’t like it. And damn it, the common names stay the same, you hear me?

Goldenrod’s Midas Touch

Goldenrods (Solidago sp.)  are one of the iconic flowers of fall. Because it is a common roadside weed, and because it is often inaccurately blamed for the airborne pollen that aggravates hayfever, some people have a hard time thinking of goldenrods as garden plants. That’s a shame, because they can add texture as well as glowing color to the fall garden. As with many American wildflowers, goldenrod’s ornamental possibilities were first widely perceived in Europe. Just about all Goldenrods are magnets for pollinators.

There are about 100 species of Goldenrod, mostly in North America. In this post I’m going to write about the four species growing in my garden. All are straight species, not cultivars.

Anise-Scented Goldenrod

Anise-Scented Goldenrod (Solidago odora). I highly recommend this plant. It is relatively compact – most descriptions put it at 1-2′ but in my garden it grows at least a foot taller. It is relatively upright, though I’m going to try cutting mine back next year to reduce flopping. It’s the first of my Goldenrods to bloom, starting around mid-August. The flowers are fluffy clouds of gold. It grows in sun or part shade, and doesn’t spread aggressively. I’ve read you can make a tea from the leaves, but I’ve never tried that. I also haven’t noticed it being especially aromatic.

Blue Stem Goldenrod
Blue Stem Goldenrod – in this picture you can see the blue color of some mature stems.

Blue Stem Goldenrod (Solidago caesia). This is another excellent Goldenrod for the garden. Like Anise-Scented Goldenrod, it is fairly compact. However, Blue Stem Goldenrod has a weeping habit, with cascades of arching and flowering stems. This Goldenrod will grow in sun or part shade. It self-sows pretty aggressively, but the seedlings are not hard to yank, and it does not spread by rhizomes.

Zigzag Goldenrod

Zigzag Goldenrod (Solidago flexicaulus). Use caution when planting this guy. It spreads very aggressively, by both rhizomes and seed. I would put it only in difficult situations with plenty of tough competition. Zigzag Goldenrod has flowers that bloom at intervals up more or less rigid stems. Actually, I cut it back to prevent flopping. It can grow in full shade, and is an attractive plant in bloom.

Canada Goldenrod

Canada Goldenrod (Solidago canadensis). OK, this plant really is a weed. Even so, I let Canada Goldenrod establish itself in a few difficult spots because it has its own beauty. It spreads aggressively by rhizomes and seeds, and I pull it up whenever it pops up outside its designated areas, which it does often. It’s kind of tall and gangly, but the racemes of flowers on top can be very attractive.

In a week or so I’ll do another post about Asters – I want to wait until mine have fully bloomed. Asters and Goldenrods are like the bread and wine of Midwestern gardens in autumn. Do you have Goldenrods growing in your garden, or do you plan to add some?

Pods, Seedheads, Fruit, and Foliage Follow-Up

Fall in the garden means seedheads, pods, and fruit join flowers and foliage as features of the garden. So here are some non-floral highlights for mid-September:

Caladium, Impatiens, ageratum.

I forget what this variety is called, but I think I’ve decided I like these plain green and white Caladiums  (Caladium bicolor) best. I built this raised bed on the stump of a tree we had to remove.

Persian Shield and Caladium

Persian Shield (Strobianthes dyerianus)  is nice, but I don’t think I’ll grow it next year. Too dark for a shady yard.

The crabapples are like clusters of round rubies this year.

Cup Plant

The Cup Plant (Silphium perfoliatum) has a long bloom period, but now the seeds are ripe, being eaten by goldfinches or dropping to the ground.

Downy Sunflowers and Joe Pye Weed

The Downy Sunflower (Helianthus mollis) had a disappointingly brief bloom period. They are joined by Joe Pye Weed ‘Gateway’ (Eupatorium maculatum).

Swamp Milkweed

I like how the seed pods of Swamp Milkweed (Asclepias incarnata) point skywards.

Sweet Joe Pye Weed

Sweet Joe Pye Weed (Eupatorium purpureum) has nice, fluffy seedheads.

Northern Sea Oats

Northern Sea Oats (Chasmanthium latifolium) have some of the most beautiful seedheads.


Switchgrass ‘Northwind’  (Panicum virgatum) seedheads have a different look, but in my opinion are even more beautiful. It also doesn’t flop.

And finally, another sign of fall: spiderweb in the Cup Plant.

Garden Bloggers’ Bloom Day: September 2012

My garden is an a sort of transition period between summer and fall. Many of the perennial summer flowers now have seedheads instead of blooms, while the fall flowers have either just begun to flower or are on the verge. Most of the asters, in particular, are dotted with blue and purple, a prelude to the mass of color that will come later in the season. Every morning I inspect these late bloomers, pardon the pun, with impatience (if not Impatiens). I want to address them sternly: “Hey, you! Don’t just stand around gawking – think you’ll get around to blooming before the holidays?” But I remain quiet for the most part, because I don’t want to give the neighbors any funny ideas.

But back to the September Bloom Day. Let’s start by walking out through the back porch.

Flowering Tobacco

The Flowering Tobacco (Nicotiana alata) is looking very nice. Very important with this one to deadhead promptly.

Overall, I’m pleased with the look of the containers on the back porch landing.

The Japanese Anemones (Anemone x hybrida) are among the late bloomers. This is ‘Honorine Jobert’. I find the flower buds attractive in their own right. I like how you can see the white between the bracts as they are just about to open.

Great Blue Lobelia (Lobelia syphilitica)

The Great Blue Lobelia (Lobelia syphilitica) seemed to bloom only briefly this season. Whenever I look at this plant I think that whoever came up with the botanical name is definitely guilty of false advertising, or maybe wishful thinking. The name is derived from the incorrect but once common belief that this plant cures syphilis. Couldn’t the taxonomists take time out from messing up perfectly adequate botanical names and think up something a little less unseemly for this poor flower?

Crooked Stem Aster (Aster prenanthoides)

Crooked Stem Aster (Aster prenanthoides) starts blooming in late summer and does well in shade and moist soil.

Big Leaf Aster (Aster macrophyllum)

My kids refer to Big Leaf Aster (Aster macrophyllum) as Big Ass Leafter. This is a good plant for difficult sites.

Solidago flexicaulis

Zigzag goldenrod (Solidago flexicaulus) does well in shade and is an attractive plant, but it should ONLY be planted in difficult sites with plenty of tough competition. Otherwise, it becomes a rapacious thug.

Zinnia ‘Profusion Orange’ and Prairie Dropseed (Sporobulus heterolepsis)

Now let’s amble around to the front yard, past the vegetable and herb bed. First we see the orange  ‘Profusion’ Zinnias interplanted with Prairie Dropseed (Sporobolus heterolepsus).

Anise Scented Goldenrod (Solidago odora) and Aromatic Aster (Aster oblongifolius)
Aromatic Aster (Aster oblongifolius)

Then there’s the Anise Scented Goldenrod (Solidago odora) and Aromatic Aster (Aster oblongifolius).

Cleome ‘Senorita Rosalita’ and Black Eyed Susan (Rudbeckia fulgida)

Most of the color coming from the raised bed along the walk to the front door comes from Black Eyed Susan (Rudbeckia fulgida) and Spider flower (Cleome ‘Senorita Rosalita’).

Brown Eyed Susan (Rudbeckia triloba) and Anise Hyssop (Agastache foeniculum)

There’s also Brown Eyed Susan (Rudbeckia triloba) and Anise Hyssop (Agastache foeniculum) in the parkway.

Aster novae angliae

New England Aster (Aster novae-angliae) is just beginning to bloom in the front island bed. I grow the straight species, and it’s interesting to see how variable the flower colors are: blue, purple, pink …

Blue Stem Goldenrod (Solidago caesia)

Bluestem Goldenrod (Solidago caesia) is a nice low goldenrod for the garden, just be prepared to pull up lots of seedlings.

Short’s Aster (Aster shortii)

Short’s Aster (Aster shortii) is, as you can see, completely covered with buds. The first few have just popped.

Verbena peruviana

And on the east side of the house, the Impatiens seem to have called it quits for the season. The Verbena, however, are still going strong.

Well, that’s it. I’m thinking I may follow-up with posts with more information on the different kinds of goldenrod and aster in the garden. They’re my fall favorites – I’d take them over chrysanthemums any day. Would you agree, or are you a chrysanthemum fan?

Many thanks to for hosting Garden Bloggers Bloom Day.

Tackling a Problem Side Yard

My good friends Jean and Jim have asked for my help figuring out what to do with the side yard to the south of their home. Right now this area has a U-shaped flower bed. The northern arm of the U lies along the house, and receives lots of sun. It is mostly empty, though it has some peonies, a rose bush, Calico Asters (Aster lateriflorus), and Cream False Indigo (Baptisia bracteata).

The northern arm of the U. Please note that while Judy’s camera is fixed, Judy herself has gone to New Orleans on a work trip, poor thing. Or so she claims. Anyhow, that’s why I took this picture and the next one. I am not much of a photographer. Fortunately, the remainder are hers.


The southern arm lies along a chain link fence (marking the border with the neighbors). It gets some morning sun but is mostly shady and the soil is moist. There’s a golden alexander (Zizia aurea) and an oak leaf hydrangea in the southwest corner. Otherwise this area is pretty much overrun by Creeping Buttercup (Ranuculus repens).

The southern arm of the U. Jean had pulled out the Buttercup foliate, you can see it stealthily growing back.

The far end of the U faces west and backs against the chain link fence. Some conifers about 30′ tall stand on the other side of the fence. Down the middle of this side yard is a peninsula of lawn with large square pavers for stepping stones. The whole property had been professionally landscaped by the prior owner and the garden designer had surrounded the stepping stones with Buttercups, which went on to rampage through the moist part of the yard. Oops.

So there are two challenges. First,  fill the empty spaces on the northern arm with perennials adapted to a dryish sunny spot, particularly ones which will shine after the peonies are done blooming. Second, come up with some tough plants that like moisture and shade – and that can compete with and even  shade out the Creeping Buttercups. (My feeling is that trying to remove the Buttercups is a fool’s errand, unless Jean wants to use some very heavy duty herbicides, which she doesn’t.)

Preference is for plants that are mat-forming or otherwise dense enough to inhibit weeds. Filling in quickly would also be a good thing.

I’m trying to come up with a list of plants for this project. Some initial thoughts …

For the north/sunny arm:

Smooth Penstemon (Penstemon digitalis)

Smooth Penstemon (Penstemon digitalis)

Brown Eyed Susan (Rudbeckia triloba)

Black Eyed Susan (Rudbeckia fulgida)

The above have the advantage of being free, as I have to remove some from my beds.

Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) ‘Paprika’

False Sunflower (Heliopsis helianthoides)

False sunflower (Heliopsis helianthoides)

Bluebeard (Caryopteris clandonensis)

Pink turtlehead (Chelone lyonii)

Shining coneflower (Rudbeckia nitida) ‘Herbstsonne’

Salvia nemorosa ‘Caradonna’

Garden Phlox (Phlox paniculata) ‘Katherine’

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) ‘Northwind’

Switchgrass ‘Northwind’ (Panicum virgatum)

Obviously, this list will have to be narrowed down, but I’m thinking of a basically blue/yellow border with something tall to stand in front of the gas meter.

For the south/moist/shady arm:

Variegated sedge (Carex morrowii) ‘Ice Dance’

Palm Sedge (Carex muskingumensis)

Bee Balm (Monarda didyma) ‘Raspberry Wine’

Monarda didyma ‘Raspberry Wine’

Ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris)

Wall Iris (Iris tectorum)

Dwarf Goatsbeard (Aruncus aethusifolius)

Chinese astilbe (Astilbe chinensis var. pumila)

Variegated Solomon’s Seal (Polygonatum odoratum) ‘Variegatum’

Siberian bugloss (Brunnera macrophyllum)

Siberian Bugloss (Brunnera macrophylla)

OK, once again, this list needs to be narrowed down.

So which would you choose? Which would you reject? What suggestions do you have that aren’t listed?

All ideas are welcome. I’m waiting. My friends Jean and Jim are waiting. Help!

We Order Our Bulbs for Fall Planting!

So we have ordered our fall bulbs from Scheeper’s. We ordered 90 tulips for planting in containers. Judy has been pining for luxurious hybrid tulips. I stopped planting the hybrids in the flower beds because their size got in the way of caring for the perennials. I’ve switched mostly to species tulips and grape hyacinth in the perennial beds, but suggested we try growing the hybrids in containers.

Judy picked several varieties of hybrid tulip with a red/yellow color scheme.

Tulip ‘Kingsblood’, one of our choices. Photo: Tulip Gallery.
Tulip ‘West Point’, a second choice. Photo: John Scheeper’s
A third choice: ‘La Courtine’.

I’ve never grown tulips in containers before, but I’ve read it can be done. I’ll store the containers in the garage for most of the winter, and I’ll have to throw the tulip bulbs on the compost pile when they are finished blooming.

I also ordered some 200 crocuses. I love crocuses, but I hate how they are vandalized by squirrels. What is most maddening is how the squirrels sometimes just bite off the flowers. This strikes me as pure rodent malice. I’m told that Crocus tommasinanus is less appealing to squirrels, so I got Crocus tommasinianus ‘Lilac Beauty’.

Crocus tommasinianus ‘Lilac Beauty’. Photo: John Scheeper’s

Further Thoughts on Flowering Containers

Now that we’re heading into the fall season I’m rethinking my preferred plants for next year’s containers. A few conclusions I’ve drawn:

  • Big Thumbs Up for Pentas. I was very happy with the Star Flowers (Pentas lanceolata) in my containers for sun. They bloom enthusiastically and can take the heat. Plus, they are great for hummingbirds. In August I regularly came to the front door on my way out and saw hummingbirds on the porch nectaring at the Pentas – they had never appeared on the front porch before this. While the red clusters of small star-shaped flowers are unique when viewed up close, from a distance they look like zonal geranium flowers.
Pentas (left) with Canna.
  • Orange Cosmos v. Orange ‘Profusion’ Zinnias. Earlier this year I was enthusiastic about my orange cosmos (Cosmos sulphureus), which I used as a filler in containers. However, in late summer the cosmos tended to get ragged and bloom sparsely, no matter how conscientiously I deadheaded. I think next year I would use orange ‘Profusion’ Zinnias instead. I used them in one of my sunny beds, and  they are more reliable for flowering throughout the growing season. Even when I don’t deadhead them, they bloom, well, profusely.
  • Cannas are Really a Foliage Plant. This is the first year I had more than one Canna, and I realized that this should really be grown as a foliage plant. I wouldn’t go as far as Garden Walk Garden Talk, who removes the flower buds before they bloom. I like Canna flowers, but they are too few and far between to be the main selling point of this plant. The foliage is really something, though, and in the future I will make interesting foliage my first criteria when picking Canna varieties. I’ve found that they do make good container plants, though I haven’t tried the really gigantic ones.
Cannas with flowers on the back porch – green and purple foliage
  • Prune those Lantanas. My ‘New Gold’ Lantanas did not bloom as freely as I expected this summer. Only after I pruned them back did they start flowering as I had hoped. I conclude that deadheading is not enough, these plants really need to be cut back at least a couple times over the summer.
  • Bacopa Has Staying Power. I expected the annual lobelia (Lobelia erinus) to sulk during the summer months and then bounce back in fall. However, this summer’s extreme heat just wiped these guys out. In the future, I’ll be inclined to use Bacopa (Supera cordata) as a trailing plant with blue flowers. It’s not as eye-catching as annual lobelia, but it does have staying power.
We inherited this old wheelbarrow from the former owners. It was already rusting, so I turned it into a planter for the remainder of its days.
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